States are not required to seek EPA approval under the terms of Section 177. oh deer pattern full printing christmas ugly sweater The 1990 amendments also imposed tighter requirements on emissions allowed during refueling, on low temperature CO emissions,
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Third, in addition to the technology-based and health-based programs for major sources of hazardous air pollution, EPA is to establish standards for stationary “area sources” determined oh deer pattern full printing christmas ugly sweater to present a threat of adverse effects to human health or the environment. The provision requires EPA to regulate the stationary area sources responsible for 90% of the emissions of the 30 hazardous air pollutants that present the greatest risk to public health in the largest number of urban areas. In setting the standard, EPA can impose less stringent “generally available” control technologies, rather than MACT. The law directed EPA to contract with the National Academy of Sciences for a study of risk assessment methodology, and created a Risk Assessment and Management Commission
to investigate and report on policy implications and appropriate uses of risk assessment and risk management. In 1994 NAS published its report, Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. The Commission study, Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management, was released in 1997. Only California can qualify for such a preemption waiver because it is the only state that adopted motor vehicle emission standards “prior to March 30, 1966.” According to EPA records, since 1967, California has submitted over 100 waiver requests for new or amended standards or “within the scope” determinations (i.e., a request that EPA rule on whether a new state regulation is within the scope of a waiver that EPA has already issued).10 Additionally, the CAA allows other states to adopt California’s motor vehicle emission standards under certain conditions.11 Section 177 requires, among other things, that such standards be identical to the California standards for which a waiver has been granted.