abuse were substantiated on investigation by APS staff and clients were offered protective services, national football league san francisco 49ers helmet crocs 13 percent of the victims refused such services; Gilbert ; perhaps 40 percent of the older adults
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to contact government entities and disclose otherwise private customer records and information concerning suspected violations of the law and that this would encompass elder abuse reports (U.S. Congress, 2000). national football league san francisco 49ers helmet crocs As discussed, alternatives such as durable powers of attorney can also be subject to abuse. Research has not been conducted on which of these measures leaves an elderly person more vulnerable, is more likely to be misused, or has more egregious consequences for an elderly person when misused. However, the law pertaining to the establishment of guardianships generally expresses a preference for alternatives that have been established by the elderly person and that ostensibly are less comprehensive in their assigned powers than is typically true of a guardianship.
For a description of some specialized law enforcement and prosecutor units established to address financial abuse and promising criminal justice practices, see Heisler . One exception is North Dakota, which has an APS law but does not have a functioning APS program . There are certain circumstances defined by state law when a child who has not reached the age of majority is considered emancipated and is therefore considered to have capacity to make decisions on his or her own behalf. In addition, a few states have recognized a mature minor doctrine. Macolini reported that 6 states and the District of Columbia require the consent of the elder person before commencing an investigation of a report of elder abuse and that 29 states and the District of Columbia specifically require the consent of the elder person before services can be provided. See also Shiferaw et al. ; in cases in which allegations of elder