that legislative models targeting spouse abuse better address its dynamics and serve its victims national football league dallas cowboys tie dye crocs (AARP, 1993; Brandl, 2000; Brandl and Meuer, 2000; Heisler, 1991; Vinton, 1991, 1999; Vinton et al., 1997).31
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However, as discussed, a frequently identified precursor of financial abuse of the elderly is their social isolation and, in particular, their living alone national football league dallas cowboys tie dye crocs (Hwang, 1996; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, 2001; Podnieks, 1992; Quinn, 2000; Rush and Lank, 2000). Victims of financial abuse are more likely to be widowed and to report they have no one to help them in the event of illness or disability, while victims of physical violence tend both to be married and to be living with their abuser (Choi et al., 1999; Podnieks, 1992). These findings further suggest that a spouse abuse model may be inappropriate when developing responses to financial abuse of the elderly.
However, Pillemer and Finkelhor did not include financial abuse in their definition of elder abuse. Thus, they did not examine its occurrence and did not determine whether spouses or adult children of the victims were more likely to be perpetrators of financial abuse. In contrast, as noted above, the NEAIS report found that 45 percent of the perpetrators of financial abuse were age 40 or younger and only 4.9 percent of the incidents involved a spouse . In addition, Choi and Mayer found that spouses were the perpetrators of financial exploitation in only 1.5 percent of all financial exploitation cases. It has been widely asserted that it is adult children and grandchildren of the elderly that are particularly likely to perpetrate financial abuse (Coker and Little, 1997; Quinn, 2000; Rush and Lank, 2000; Sklar, 2000). A number of commentators have argued that financial abuse of the elderly should be viewed as a form of domestic violence and