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private sector companies; environmental groups and others. Like most federal environmental statutes, the Clean Air Act is enforced primarily by states or local governments; lsu tigers football geaux tigers full printing ugly sweater they issue most permits, monitor compliance, and conduct the majority of inspections. The federal government functions as a backstop, with authority to review state actions. The agency may act independently or may file its own enforcement action in cases where it concludes that a state’s response was inadequate. The act essentially capped SO2 emissions at individual existing sources through a tonnage limitation, and at future plants through the allowance system. First, emissions from most existing sources were capped at a specified emission rate times an historic baseline level.
Second, for plants commencing operation after November 15, 1990, emissions had to be completely offset with additional reductions at existing facilities beginning after Phase 2 compliance. However, as noted above, the law provided some allowances to future power plants which met certain criteria. The utility SO2 emission cap was set at 8.9 million tons, with some exceptions. Section 112 establishes a presumption in favor of regulation for the designated chemicals; it requires regulation of a designated pollutant unless EPA or a petitioner is able to show “that there is adequate data on the health and environmental effects of the substance to determine that emissions, ambient concentrations, bioaccumulation or deposition of the substance may not reasonably be anticipated to cause any adverse effects to human health or adverse environmental effects” (Clean Air Act Section 112). The amendments also require that, in nonattainment areas, no federal permits or financial assistance may be granted for activities that do not “conform” to a SIP.