and some penalty must be imposed for every violation halloween llama youll wanna call me your mama christmas ugly sweater regardless of its severity. Water Pollution Like clean air, healthy water is indispensable to human existence.
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popularly known as the Ocean Dumping Act, is the second piece of federal legislation drafted in response to these two international water pollution problems. halloween llama youll wanna call me your mama christmas ugly sweater The MPRSA has three titles. Title I establishes a permit program, administered by the EPA, for dumping materials into and transporting them through ocean waters. Title II creates a research program, under the auspices of the secretary of commerce, to determine ways in which ocean dumping can be reduced or eliminated. Under title III, the secretary of commerce may designate certain parts of ocean water as marine sanctuaries to preserve and restore recreational, ecological, or aesthetic interests. Accompanying the civil penalty scheme are cleanup provisions.
These include preparation and publication of a national contingency plan for the removal of hazardous substances and the prevention of spills; authorization for the United States to take summary action whenever a marine disaster creates a substantial threat to the nation’s environment, including threats to fish, wildlife, shorelines, and beaches; authorization for the U.S. attorney general, under the direction of the president, to abate any “imminent or substantial” marine disaster through legal action; and imposition of costs for cleanup upon the owner or operator. It also represents a strict liability standard. There is no escape from liability for a harmful discharge of oil that results from negligence, even if the accident could not have been prevented. By contrast, previous federal legislation prohibited only oil spills that were knowingly discharged. Courts have broadly interpreted the CWA to cover oil discharged by trucks, pipelines, vessels, drilling platforms, and both onshore and offshore facilities. A civil penalty of not more than $5,000 is prescribed for each offense,