Loss of biodiversity raises the ethical question of human responsibility custom name the polar express ticket reindeer pattern christmas ugly sweater to protect plants and animals. Utilitarian, deontological, biocentric, ecocentric, and feminist ethical ways of thinking
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as impoverished rural farming families move to cities where conditions foster sex work and unsafe sex. Extreme weather events, infection, and malnutrition custom name the polar express ticket reindeer pattern christmas ugly sweater will have the greatest health effects in poor and vulnerable populations . In sub-Saharan Africa over 110 million people currently live in regions prone to malaria epidemics. Climate change could add million to this figure by the 2080s .15 Any such increase would exacerbate poverty16 and make it harder to achieve and sustain health improvements. India provides a good example of the complexity of these relations. The country’s average life expectancy is relatively low but is expected to improve with industrialisation and modernisation. Industrialisation is contributing to the rapid increase of coal burning in India, and the resultant addition to global emissions and climate change amplifies health risks worldwide.
These health risks will affect the world’s most vulnerable populations. Given the obviousness of some of the ethical questions raised by global environmental problems, the failure to address these questions seems odd. One reason is that vested interests have consciously attempted to “reposition” the issues so that apparently “value-neutral” issues supplant ethical debate. Concerned persons should resist this marginalization of moral issues. Most recently, disputes about international distributive justice have become the largest blocks to international negotiations on global environmental issues; for instance, at the five-year review of the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, bitter fights between rich and poor nations blocked progress on moving the international environmental agenda. If we are going to prevent serious global environmental damage, concerned people must speak out about the value of nature, and also the value of international distributive justice. We have a duty to protect biodiversity.