defensiveness or hostility by the caregiver during visits or on the phone, american flag alabama crimson tide football team crocs and an unwillingness by the caregiver to leave the elder person alone during appointments .
american flag alabama crimson tide football team crocs
found that roughly 40 percent of the perpetrators were the victim’s sons or daughters, 20 percent were other relatives (only 1.5 percent were spouses), and 4 percent were not relatives (Choi et al., 1999). american flag alabama crimson tide football team crocs A related study found that spouses were perpetrators of financial exploitation in only 1.5 percent of cases as opposed to 13.8 percent of all other elder abuse cases . This study also found, however, that nonrelatives were the perpetrators in 38.8 percent of the financial exploitation cases in contrast to only 14.7 percent of all other elder abuse cases . Another report concluded that perpetrators are often relatives, particularly children or grandchildren of the victim, many of whom depend on the elderly victim for housing or other assistance, have substance abuse problems, and are represented almost equally by both genders .
One set of motivations widely identified tends to be associated with all forms of elder abuse. Frequently cited motivations include the perpetrator’s substance abuse, mental health, gambling, or financial problems (Dessin, 2000; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, 2001; Tueth, 2000). The perpetrator’s actions may be based on “learned violence” or be modeled after the prior behavior of the elder person . Where the perpetrator is a primary caregiver, caregiver stress has been cited as a cause of this abuse . A fourth cluster of signals is associated with visits to physicians or other health care providers. One such signal is a patient’s unmet physical needs notwithstanding the availability of financial resources . Other identified behaviors are missed medical appointments, dropping out of treatment, uncharacteristic nonpayment for services, declining physical and psychological health,